The overall goal of the one-child policy was to keep the total population within 1. Even without state intervention, there were compelling reasons for urban couples to limit the family to a single child. In the mids the maximum recommended family size was two children in cities and three or four in the country.
Since the s, rudimentary treatments such as storage in pits, compostingand mixture with chemicals have been implemented. Birth control offices were set up in the central government and some provincial-level governments in In the early s, schemes somewhat more muted than during the first campaign, emphasized the virtues of late marriage.
Indeed, the challenge of paying for health care in China is immense, especially since the Chinese health care system has already experienced large increases in overall costs and greater private expenditure since shifting to a market-oriented system in the early s.
This shift entailed a number of important consequences for rural health care. In addition to the problem, trends in both the female labor-force participation and the sex ratio of young Chinese may well create additional issues for a society which traditionally has left elder care to its women, especially daughters-in-law.
Though public funding for the long-term care of the elderly in China is still limited, the Chinese government has started to allocate more funding in this area. Strategies for long-term care. Farmers in some brigades established voluntary health-insurance programs but had difficulty organizing and administering them.
Today, however, China faces the opposite problem: In urban areas public security headquarters included population control sections. Chinese census workers were sent to the United States and Japan to study modern census-taking techniques and automation.
In Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, portions are completely uninhabited, and only a few sections have populations denser than ten people per km2. Coast and eastern China In the 11 provinces, special municipalities, and autonomous regions along the southeast coast, population density was They are also starting to set up long-term care delivery systems for the elderly.
The leaders of brigades, through which local health care was administered, also found farming to be more lucrative than their salaried positions, and many of them left their jobs. Programs targeted toward specific diseases have also increased.
Couples with only one child were given a "one-child certificate" entitling them to such benefits as cash bonuses, longer maternity leavebetter child careand preferential housing assignments. Political turmoil and famine following the failure of the Great Leap Forward led to starvation of 20 million people in China.
Couples with more than one child were exhorted to be sterilized. Computers were installed in every provincial-level unit except Tibet and were connected to a central processing system in the Beijing headquarters of the State Statistical Bureau.Although China’s GDP growth has gradually showed sinceit is still impressive by current global standards.
With a population of billion, China is the second largest economy and is increasingly playing an important and influential role in development and in the global economy.
Because chronic health problems become more common in old age, China’s population aging has led to increases in the country’s prevalence of chronic disease and disability, creating a greater need for long-term care.
The same force of momentum will work in the opposite direction soon. Given current mortality and fertility rates, and with a population age structure that is growing increasingly older, the number of deaths will soon exceed the number of births.
China’s population is likely to peak less than 15 years from now, below a maximum of billion. Components of China's Economy One of its goals was to balance China's growing power in the region. The group represents almost half of the world's population. Now it also has four members which have nuclear weapons: Russia, China, India, and Pakistan.
The One-Child Policy was successful in halting China's increasing population and decreased both the birth rate and population, However, the harsh enforcement of the policy created long-term changes to some of China's health indicators.
ByChina's population is expected to reach billion, as is India's. After that, India is expected to surpass China as the world's most populous country, as India is growing more quickly than China.
As ofIndia has an estimated total fertility rate ofwhich is above replacement value.Download