The global history of gendered movements

Negotiations, Paradoxes, Futures Appendix: I focus on the paradoxes of their forms of survival and struggle: In Chapter 2, I address the cultural politics of neoliberalism in Ecuador on two levels.

Global Gender Movements Since 1700

Eurocentric discourses of race continue to frame social relations. If it did not, women would be less likely to work within the institutional boundaries of these neoliberal development hierarchies.

For example, members of some groups have used their traditional roles as mothers to fight for social justice or against economic imperialism; their performance of motherhood in the streets, in public protests, or at meetings may invoke a more traditional notion of motherhood than they actually live out in their own lives.

Women activists have experienced this identity crisis on various levels: In this regard, the power to name, to see, to identify, to make visible, is as important to their struggles as is the power to redistribute, organize a march, lead a community project, or write a policy statement.

More than twenty gender-based legislative actions were made in the — period alone see Appendixincluding the passage of new laws against violence against women, the installation of a female quota for political participation, and the repeal The global history of gendered movements several discriminatory laws.

Approximately 70 percent of the population live in poverty or subpoverty conditions and 7—10 percent live abroad, particularly in the United States or Spain Weismantel Political protests have remained a constant in daily life throughout the country. At the time, although many women recognized the extent to which their roles as community members, mothers, and citizens had been jeopardized by the emerging economic crisis, they did not foresee how their roles would, in a sense, become integrated into the logic of development.

During the early twentieth century, the Ecuadorian state began to see the population itself as a form of human capital, a move that had specific effects for poor women and men Clark Through their process of organizing against the Bucaram administration, a process that the entire nation participated in, the four feminist strands helped to remake the nation, both institutionally, through their participation in the constitutional reforms, and symbolically, through their challenges to political corruption.

Ironically perhaps, strategic essentialism played an important role in their immediate challenges to the state and, in the long run, to the transformation of gender relations.

Gendered Paradoxes

Supporters of dollarization viewed it as a necessary response to financial crisis, rather than as a symptom or cause of further conflict, although this would soon be disproved Beckerman These are some of the questions I wish to address in this book. The challenge, though, was and continues to be how to construct political and economic strategies without selling out to the powers that be: Today, many of the children of the elderly must provide housing and financial support for their parents.

As many scholars have shown, although geopolitical boundaries are very real in the sense that they shape our daily lives in powerful ways, they are also constructs or imagined communities Anderson that discourage us from making connections, understanding the limits of nationalist ideologies Sunder Rajanand reimagining development Bhavnani, Foran, and Kurian These measures, based on World Bank— and IMF-inspired neoliberal policies, which were designed to stimulate economic growth through foreign investment, trade liberalization, privatization, state retrenchment, and the redistribution of social welfare, had some expected social consequences, such as increased unemployment and high inflation rates.

The survival and political strategies I examine, while fragmented and sometimes contradictory, deserve our attention: Yet how poor women are targeted by development practitioners also has positive consequences for the women involved, such as political and subjective empowerment, as many scholars have pointed out e.

Increasingly during the s and s, women began to protest the presence of foreign aid agencies and institutions in their movements, adding to their long-standing criticism and analysis of male-based forms of political power.

Inthe Ecuadorian government first began to implement structural adjustment measures so that it could receive loans from the International Monetary Fund IMF. Indeed, this has been an important project in Western social theory and research, particularly in anthropology.

Although the nation was largely unmade during this period, social movement participants helped remake and transform the country, through the new public-private partnerships between the state and civic organizations; new political-participation laws; and large, national protests against government and financial corruption in the banking sector.

A broader feminist paradox is the ongoing struggle for citizen rights in a national context in which the majority lack social rights and continue to be marginalized, despite the recent political reforms. During the — period, five governments led the country and all of them implemented neoliberal policies.

Yet they reveal much about the gendered making of modernity, national identity and politics in Ecuador, a country whose state-led modernization project has been paradoxical and inherently unequal from the start.

The Paradoxes of Survival and Struggle 5. Yet the question is, Which women benefit from this acquisition of institutional space—and which lose out? To what extent, if at all, does this configuration of state- and NGO-based feminist power coincide with or facilitate the broader project of neoliberal restructuring and globalization?Global Gender Movements Since Add Remove.

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