For example, the Chautauqua Lake Sunday School Assembly in western New York state began in as a program for training Sunday school teachers and church workers.
The open-online-course format had been used early on by some universities, but it did not become widely popular until the emergence of MOOC providers such as Coursera, edX, Khan Academy, and Udacity. Common target populations for distance learning include professionals seeking recertification, workers updating employment skills, individuals with disabilities, and active military personnel.
The printed text was originally the principal teaching medium in most Open University courses, but this changed somewhat with the advent of the Internet and computers, which enabled written assignments and materials to be distributed via the Web.
With more thandifferent online courses to choose from, about one-quarter of American students took at least one such course each term. Although the initial purpose of MOOCs was to provide informal learning opportunities, there have been experiments in using this format for degree credit and certifications from universities.
In the United States the army commissioned Hollywood film director Frank Capra to produce seven films, the widely acclaimed series Why We Fight —45in order to educate American soldiers on what was at stake.
Much of the early research was conducted at IBMwhere the latest theories in cognitive science were incorporated in the application of educational technology.
As one of the most successful nontraditional institutions with a research component, the Open University is a major contributor to both the administrative and the pedagogical literature in the field of open universities.
These theories led to different techniques for the use of media in the classroom, with behaviourism concentrating on altering student behaviour and constructivism focusing on process- and experience-based learning. As early asas a study commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation found, there was widespread fraud among correspondence schools in the United States, and there were no adequate standards to protect the public.
A pioneer in the field is the University of Phoenixwhich was founded in Arizona in and by the first decade of the 21st century had become the largest private school in the world, with more thanenrolled students.
Shared social spaces in the form of blogswikis Web sites that can be modified by all classroom participantsand collaboratively edited documents are also used in educational settings but to a lesser degree than similar spaces available on the Internet for socializing.
In Europe, mail-order courses had been established by the middle of the 19th century, when the Society of Modern Languages in Berlin offered correspondence courses in French, German, and English.
The connections of learners, teachers, and instructional resources become less dependent on physical proximity as communications systems become more sophisticated and widely available; consequently, the Internet, mobile phonesand e-mail have contributed to the rapid growth in distance learning.
Finally, many Web-based personal-assistant companies offer a range of services for adults seeking continuing education or professional development. Students and institutions embrace distance learning with good reason. The next major advancement in educational technology came with the linking of computers through the Internetwhich enabled the development of modern distance learning.
Characteristics of distance learning Various terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of distance learning. MOOCs are characterized by extremely large enrollments—in the tens of thousands—the use of short videotaped lectures, and peer assessments.
Distance learning traditionally has focused on nontraditional students, such as full-time workers, military personnel, and nonresidents or individuals in remote regions who are unable to attend classroom lectures.
Early history of distance learning Correspondence schools in the 19th century Geographical isolation from schools and dispersed religious congregations spurred the development of religious correspondence education in the United States in the 19th century.
Both proprietary and open-source systems are common. Four characteristics distinguish distance learning. Open universities typically do this by forming committees to design courses and hiring part-time tutors to help struggling students and to grade papers, leaving the actual classroom instruction duties, if any, to the professors.
Finally, distance education, like any education, establishes a learning group, sometimes called a learning communitywhich is composed of students, a teacher, and instructional resources—i. The first model involves the substitution of labour with capital, whereas the second is based on the replacement of faculty with cheaper labour.
The second basic approach, a labour-for-labour model, is to divide the faculty role into the functions of preparation, presentation, and assessment and to assign some of the functions to less-expensive workers.
Its success led to the founding of many similar schools throughout the United States in the chautauqua movement.
The tutors and interactions between individual students are meant to compensate for the lack of face-to-face lectures in the Open University. Although the theoretical trend beginning in the s seemed to be toward a stronger reliance on video, audio, and other multimedia, in practice most successful programs have predominately utilized electronic texts and simple text-based communications.
The emergence of Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs in the first and second decades of the 21st century represented a major shift in direction for distance learning. Because many distance learning programs are offered by for-profit institutions, distance learning has become associated with the commercialization of higher education.
Students may also attend local face-to-face classes run by their tutor, and they may choose to form self-help groups with other students. Second, geographic separation is inherent in distance learning, and time may also separate students and teachers.
Technological aides to education One of the first technological aides to education was the lantern slide e. These distance learning models suggest that the largest change in education will come in altered roles for faculty and vastly different student experiences.Distance & Online Learning at BCIT - what's available, how to register, the difference between Internet (NET) and Correspondence (COR) courses.
Distance learning, also called distance education, e-learning, and online learning, form of education in which the main elements include physical separation of teachers and students during instruction and the use of various technologies to facilitate student-teacher and student-student communication.Download